First Author: A.Trigui TUNISIA
Co Author(s): S. Ben Amor M. Chaabane S. Kamoun D. Ammous N. Hentati J. Fki
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To evaluate the impact of prematurity on the development of visual function.
Department of Ophthalmology, Habib Bourguiba University Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia.
We carried out a prospective comparative study in which we studied the evolution of visual function at the 5-year pre-school age in 34 premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity with a gestational age (GA) < 32 weeks and/or with a birth weight less than 1500 g. We compared the results with a group of 34 children born at term, at the same age and without history of systemic or ocular pathologies. We collected the neonatal antecedents in the premature group and we performed a complete ophthalmological examination with visual acuity, keratometry, axial length, fundus examination and sensory-motor status.
The incidence of myopia and hyperopia in preterm infants in pre-school age was similar to that of infants born at term. Nevertheless, astigmatism was more frequent in the group of premature infants. Myopia was associated with a birth weight less than 1500g and / or intense postnatal resuscitation in 2/3 of the cases. We did not found any significant difference in visual acuity and spherical equivalence between the 2 groups. Amblyopia was more prevalent in the preterm group, it was associated with a birth weight less than 1500g, a gestational age less than 30SA, presence of nosocomial or maternal-foetal infection and intensive perinatal resuscitation with artificial ventilation. The study of biometry showed a shorter axial length and a more curved cornea with a greater dioptric power in the group of premature infants. Sensory-motor status was more altered in the premature infants who received intense resuscitation with artificial ventilation and phototherapy.
Our data confirm that prematurity predicts alterations of early visual development, thus preventive recommendations should be undertaken in order to limit its consequences.