Aqueous cytokine levels are associated with reduced macular thickness after intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema

Poster Details

First Author: T.Shiraya JAPAN

Co Author(s):    F. Araki   T. Ueta   S. Kato                       

Abstract Details


It is controversial whether the administration of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs for diabetic macular edema (DME) affects intraocular inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we measured cytokine concentration in aqueous humor before and after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR). The aim was to determine changes in cytokine concentration and their effects on DME reduction.


Prospective, non-randomised, interventional case series


Twelve patients (13 eyes) with DME received two IVR (0.5 mg) with a 1 month interval, and a total of 26 aqueous humor samples were obtained. Macular thickness was measured with an optical coherence tomography using thickness-map mode with an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 9-Zone grid that was divided into two Zone s: A central circle with a diameter of 1 mm (Zone 1); and an outer circle with a diameter of 6 mm (Zone 2).


The concentration of eotaxin-1 in aqueous humor samples decreased significantly after IVR. Baseline cytokine concentration was associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In Zone 1, higher baseline concentration of interferon-induced protein (IP)-10, and in Zone 2, higher baseline concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IP-10, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) α; and lower baseline concentration of eotaxin-1, interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-8 were associated with improved DME. Cytokine changes were associated with IVR-induced DME reduction. In Zone 1, lower concentration of IP-10 compared to baseline or higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) -α, and in Zone 2, lower concentration of IL-5 compared to baseline, IL-8, and IP-10 or higher concentration of eotaxin-1 and MIP-1β were associated with improved DME.


These findings suggest that ranibizumab affects the concentration of cytokines in aqueous humor. Various cytokines contribute to a decrease in retinal thickness, both in the centre of the macula and in a larger area of the retina.

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