First Author: J.Meira PORTUGAL
Co Author(s): A. Pinto P. Neves Cardoso M. Sousa Falcao V. Rosas A. Carneiro F. Falcao-Reis
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: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the intravitreal dexamethasone (Ozurdex®) implant in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME).
Ophthalmology Service of São João Hospital centre, Porto, Portugal
Retrospective study of patients with diabetic macular edema treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implantation between December 2010 and 2016. Efficacy analysis included visual acuity and central retinal thickness and safety analysis variations of intraocular pressure, and the development and/or progression of cataract.
We selected 72 patients, with type 2 diabetes, half females and with a mean age of 67.6 years, already submitted to treatment for DME. After the implantation, in the follow-up periods of 1-2 months and 3-4 months, we documented an average improvement in visual acuity of 0.0944 LogMAR (p=0.000) and 0.0804 LogMAR (p=0.001) and an average improvement in the central retinal thickness of 285.11 μm (p=0.000) and 202.056 μm (p=0.003). Concerning the safety, we documented a mean worsening of the intraocular pressure of 1.972 mmHg (p=0.000) and 0.946 mmHg (p=0.032). Anti-hypertensive medication was used in 72.2% of the patients treated.
The dexamethasone implantation promoted a recovery of visual acuity and significant improvement of the retinal central thickness. We recorded increases in the intraocular pressure, controlled with hypotensive medication. It wasn’t possible to document the development and/or progression of cataract probably due to the short follow-up interval. This therapeutic agent is an effective therapeutic weapon in accelerating the resolution of diabetic macular edema, with an acceptable incidence of side effects. This study has limitations; studies with additional patients and longer follow up periods are important to better characterize the efficacy and safety.