First Author: N.Cheung SINGAPORE
Co Author(s): S. Ng W. Zhao C. Cheng T. Wong
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To examine the prevalence and risk factors for choroidal nevi in a large, contemporary, multi-ethnic Asian population.
Cross-sectional population-based study
This is a combined cross-sectional analysis of three population-based eye studies comprised of 10,033 Chinese, Malay and Indian persons, aged 40 years or older, residing in the general communities of Singapore. Choroidal nevi were ascertained from retinal photographs obtained from both eyes of all the participants using a standardized protocol. Characteristics of choroidal nevi were also graded for any clinical sign suggestive of melanoma. Risk factors were assessed from comprehensive systemic and ophthalmic examinations, interviews and laboratory investigations.
Of the 10,033 participants, 9,799 (99.5%) had gradable retinal photographs. Overall, the age- and ethnicity-standardized prevalence of choroidal nevi was 2.1% (confidence interval [CI] 1.8 – 2.4). The prevalence was higher among male (2.8%; CI 2.3 – 3.4) compared to female (1.5%; CI 1.1 – 1.9) participants (p<0.001). Prevalence rates of choroial nevi were 2.4% in Chinese, 2.2% in Indians and 1.7% in Malays. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of choroidal nevi between the ethnic cohorts. In multi-variate analysis, significant factors associated with choroidal nevi were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.82, CI 1.34 – 2.48), Malay ethnicity (OR 0.68 compared to Chinese, CI 0.46 – 0.99) and cataract (OR 0.49, CI 0.32 – 0.75).
Choroidal nevus is not uncommon among Asians and is most frequently seen in Chinese. Asian men are more likely to have choroidal nevus than Asian women.