First Author: D.Reis Cabral PORTUGAL
Co Author(s): P. Camacho R. Silva M. Marques M. Vila-Franca P. Rosa
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While the eye is assumed to be structurally normal in amblyopia, several studies have reported possible anatomical and functional changes in the macula of amblyopic eyes. In anisometropic amblyopic eyes, it is still undetermined whether changes are due to high myopia, amblyopia, or both. The purpose of this study is to determine whether macular function and structure of amblyopic eyes with unilateral high myopia differ between the amblyopic eye, the fellow eye and eyes with bilateral high myopia.
Cross-sectional observational study. Instituto de Oftalmologia Dr. Gama Pinto, Lisbon, Portugal.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and microperimetry (MP-3) were used to evaluate patients. Patients were divided into 2 groups, those with anisometropic highly myopic amblyopia and those with bilateral high myopia. OCT maps were used to calculate choroidal thickness, macular thickness, retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT), ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer thickness (GCL-IPLT) and outer nuclear layer thickness (ONLT); MP-3 was used to determine macular sensitivity and fixation. Mann–Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test were used to compare values between the amblyopic and the high myopia and fellow eye groups, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to study the relationship between the variables of interest.
A total of 27 pseudophakic patients were included (mean age 63,9 years [36-82 years]), 12 in the amblyopia and 15 in the high myopia group (axial length and age matched). In those groups, mean macular thickness, GCL-IPLT and ONLT did not differ significantly. Only RNFL differed significantly between the amblyopic and the fellow eye (p = 0.015) and between the amblyopic and the high myopia eyes (p = 0.019). Macular sensitivity was significantly higher in the fellow eye (p = 0.005) and high myopia (p = 0.019), whereas fixation did not change significantly between groups. Choroidal thickness and macular sensitivity was found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.753, p = 0.019).
Our data suggests that in amblyopic eyes, RNFLT and macular sensitivity may be reduced. In anisometropic highly myopic eyes, macular sensitivity may be correlated with mean choroidal thickness.