Submacular fluid associated with choroidal folds

Poster Details

First Author: H.Iwami JAPAN

Co Author(s):    Y. Komuku   F. Gomi                          

Abstract Details


Choroidal folds refer to a condition in which choroid, Bruch membrane and retinal pigment epithelium are undulating together. Most commonly, they develop idiopathic, but sometimes associate with hyperopia, ocular trauma, lower ocular tension and tumour of choroid or orbita. We experienced 7 eyes of 4 cases showing submacular fluid and choroidal folds with short axial length. The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics of those eyes.


Retrospective case series conducted in Hyogo College of Medicine


Seven eyes of 4 cases showing choroidal folds and submacular fluid on the fundus examination and the optical coherence tomography (OCT) were included. All cases were female and the mean age was 70.8 years old. Visual acuity, refractive error, axial length and choroidal thickness were examined. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography (FA and ICGA) were performed to assess the cause of the submacular fluid.


Mean decimal visual acuity was 1.08. All eyes had hyperiopia and the mean axial length was 21.16 mm. The size of submacular fluid was 1 to 4 disc areas and the choroidal folds were apparent around the temporal retinal vascular arcade. The mean choroidal thickness was 210 (range 140-320 ) microns and no eyes showed choroidal thickening. Faint leakages were seen on FA and 5 eyes showed choroidal vascular hyperpermiability on ICGA. Choroidal folds themselves were visualized as linear hypofluoresence on both FA and ICGA.


Choroidal folds in eyes with short axial length may develop submacular fluid. Smaller eye globes possibly associated with thickened sclera may cause choroidal folds and choroidal congestion resulting in submacular fluid.

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